Mat 12:1-2 At that time Yahshua went through the grain fields on the Sabbath. And His taught ones were hungry, and began to pluck heads of grain, to eat. And when the Pharisees saw it, they said to Him, “Look, Your taught ones are doing what is not right to do on the Sabbath!”
The Pharisees were a very rigid sect of Judaism. The Messiah Yahshua warned His followers to beware of them. Consider His words later in Matthew;
Mat 23:4 “For they bind heavy burdens, hard to bear, and lay them on men’s shoulders, but with their finger they do not wish to move them.”
In the text from Matt. 12, the Pharisees are accusing Yahshua of being lawless by accusing Him of breaking the Commandments through their misapplication of the Commandment to not harvest on the Sabbath;
Exo 34:21 “Six days you work, but on the seventh day you rest – in plowing time and in harvest you rest.
There is no Scripture to support the Pharisees. The followers of Yahshua were not harvesting. They were simply gleaning that which was intentionally left by the owner of the field for those in need as stated in the following;
Lev 23:22 ‘And when you reap the harvest of your land do not completely reap the corners of your field when you reap, and do not gather any gleaning from your harvest. Leave them for the poor and for the stranger. I am Yahweh your Elohim.’ ”
The Pharisees were one of the sects of Yehudism guilty of adding to / subtracting from Yahweh’s Commandments. Much like Christianity today.
Mat 12:3-4 But He said to them, “Have you not read what David did when he was hungry, he and those who were with him: how he went into the House of Elohim and ate the showbread which was not right for him to eat, nor for those who were with him, but only for the priests?
The Master legitimizes the eating of the showbread rather than letting King David and his men go hungry. The priests had a better understanding of the Spirit of the Commandment than the Pharisees did. I personally believe this to be in support of the “Sovereignty & Priesthood” pronounced upon the true believers in Messiah Yahshua. (Rev. 5:10, Rev. 20:6; Exo. 19:6; Isa. 61:6; Rom. 12:1; 1Pet. 2:5-9)
Mat 12:5 “Or did you not read in the Torah that on the Sabbath the priests in the Set-apart Place profane the Sabbath, and are blameless?”
Priests continue to work on the Sabbath through offering sacrifice, offerings and circumcision. The Pharisaical mindset would prohibit such “work”
John 7:22 “Because of this Mosheh has given you the circumcision – though it is not from Mosheh, but from the fathers – and you circumcise a man on the Sabbath.”
The Master addresses the issue of “doing good on the Sabbath” later in Matthew 12:12.
Mat 12:6-8 “But I say to you that in this place there is One greater than the Set-apart Place. And if you had known what this means, ‘I desire compassion and not offering, you would not have condemned the blameless. For the Son of Adam is Master of the Sabbath.”
The Pharisees would say that they honor the Set-apart Place, but their hypocrisy betrays them. Yahshua clearly states that HE, the One that the earthly Set-apart Place was constructed to represent, is greater than the copy of the Heavenly Set-Apart Place. HE points out the Pharisees’ lack of understanding pertaining to Yah’s reason and purpose for offering, which is the expression of HIS compassion through providing a means for sinful man to be restored to a relationship with Yah. It was never meant to be a means of exclusion, but inclusion! The Pharisees and those guilty of lawlessness cannot understand the true heart of Yahweh. But David did.
Psa The slaughterings of Elohim are a broken spirit, A heart broken and crushed, O Elohim, These You do not despise.”
Consider these verses as references to sacrifice and offering acceptable to Yahweh in The New Covenant;
Rom 12:1-2 “I call upon you, therefore, brothers, through the compassion of Elohim, to present your bodies a living offering – set-apart, well-pleasing to Elohim – your reasonable worship. And do not be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind, so that you prove what is that good and well-pleasing and perfect desire of Elohim.”
( Also; Rom. 15:16, Psa. 19:14, Eph. 5:10, Php. 4:18, 1Tim. 2:3; 5:4, Heb. 13:15-16, 1Pe. 2:5, 2:20)